Effect of perioperative infusion therapy on the functional state of the hemostatic system in patients with concomitant coronary heart disease
Background. The choice of the infusion therapy regimen in the perioperative period remains a complex and controversial issue of modern anesthesiology. This is especially true for elderly patients with concomitant cardiovascular diseases, primarily coronary heart disease (CHD). Excessive fluid restriction in the perioperative period during the intervention can contribute to the development of arterial hypotension and hypoperfusion of vital organs. At the same time, excessive fluid intake in these patients is dangerous in terms of developing complications such as decompensation of heart activity, ischemic myocardial damage. There are many factors of the perioperative period that affect the processes of fluid metabolism in the body, the state of hemodynamics and other vital functions. Among them, the most significant factors are operational stress, features of the underlying disease and surgical intervention, the influence of anesthetics, the functional state of the cardiovascular system, kidneys, etc. One of the insufficiently considered factors that may influence the choice of infusion therapy, in our opinion, is the functional state of the hemostatic system in the preoperative period.
Objective. To investigate the effect of perioperative infusion therapy on the functional state of the hemostatic system in patients with concomitant CHD.
Materials and methods. A total of 92 patients who underwent abdominal surgery under combined general anesthesia with a ventilator were examined. The average age of patients was 61±12 years; risk on the ASA scale – II-III; risk of cardiac complications on the RCRI – 1-3; risk of thrombosis on the Caprini scale – 6.5±0.1. The functional state of platelets was assessed using the platelet aggregation analyzer AR 2110 (Belarus); the state of plasma hemostasis was assessed using standard coagulogram indicators.
Results and discussion. When studying platelet aggregation in the initial state, significant fluctuations in the studied parameters were found from significant hypoaggregation to significant platelet hyperaggregation. For further analysis and differential correction, patients were divided into three groups depending on the degree of platelet aggregation. Group 1 included 22 patients with established hypoaggregation, 2nd group – 38 patients with established normal platelet aggregation, and 3rd group – 32 patients with platelet hyperaggregation. The coagulogram in the majority of patients in the initial state characterized normocoagulation or a tendency to hypercoagulation. Correction of changes in primary hemostasis was performed using infusion therapy, depending on the initial data of platelet aggregation. In the group with greegreece platelets was conducted infusion therapy with the liberal type – 5-10 ml/kg/h for intraoperative stage and 20-25 ml/kg/day after surgery; in the group with hoareau for restrictive type an average of 3-5 ml/kg/h for intraoperative stage and 20-25 ml/kg/day after surgery; in the group with normoergic the relatively restrictive type that was 5-7 ml/kg/h intraoperatively; 25 ml/kg/day after surgery. For specific correction of platelet-vascular hemostasis, etamzilate 12.5 % 4.0 ml was used in group 1 patients before surgery and later 4.0 ml three times a day; in group 3 patients, pentoxifylline 2 % 5.0 ml twice a day. Thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparins in the perioperative period was performed in all patients according to current recommendations. As a result of this approach to the correction of established disorders of platelet-vascular hemostasis, a clear trend towards normalization of the studied parameters was established already at the intraoperative stage, this trend persisted a day after the operation. Thus, the indicators of platelet aggregation in group 1 patients at the intraoperative and early postoperative stages were 68.2 (59.5; 78.1) and 63.6 (60; 72.6); in group 3 patients – 79.7 (75.3; 94.2) and 74.6 (59.2; 83.4), respectively.
Conclusions. Individualized infusion and pharmacological therapy allows correction of disorders of platelet-vascular hemostasis in patients with concomitant CHD, which may be useful for reducing the risk of thrombotic complications.
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