Infusion intravenous IgG replacement therapy for hypogammaglobulinemia after anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies at patients with non-hodgkin’s malignant lymphomas
Objective. Determining the risk of infectious complications in patients with non-hodgkin’s lymphomas (NМL) who received anti-CD20 monoclonal therapy and the effectiveness of intravenous immunoglobulin G (IgG) replacement therapy.
Materials and methods. A prospective analysis of data of 37 persons with NML who were treated in the hematology clinic of the National Military Medical Clinical Center “Main Military Clinical Hospital” from January to December 2019. Statistical data processing was performed using computer programs Microsoft Office Excel (2007) and statistical processing package Statistica 6.0 using the procedure 2×2 Tables (YI/VI/Phil, McNemar, Fisher Exact) module Nonparametric Statistics, which uses the analysis of a four-cell conjugation table.
Results and discussion. The mean age of patients was 56.5±1.4 years; 12 (32.43 %) were female patients. Baseline IgG levels before anti-CD20 monoclonal therapy were not determined in 17 (45.94 %) patients. Hypogammaglobulinemia was detected in 20 (54.05 %) subjects who were tested for IgG levels prior to anti-CD20 therapy. After administration of anti-CD20 monoclonal therapy, hypogammaglobulinemia worsened. There was an increase in severe infections after anti-CD20 therapy (from 9.4 to 40.7 %; p<0,001). An analysis of patient survival within 6 months of starting anti-CD20 monoclonal therapy revealed an increased mortality associated with an increase in age (hazard ratio (HR) 1.05; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.02; p<0.005), male (HR 1.12; 95 % CI 1.01-1.18; p<0.005), severe infectious complications (HR 5.18; 95 % CI 3.16-4,72; p<0.001). Only 10 (27.02 %) patients received IgG replacement therapy after anti-CD20 monoclonal therapy. Among these patients, a higher cumulative dose of immunoglobulin replacement therapy was associated with a reduced risk of serious infectious complications (HR 1.00; 95 % CI 0.98-1.02; p<0.005).
Conclusions. Monitoring of IgG levels both before and after rituximab therapy may allow for earlier identification of risk for developing significant infection and identify patients who may benefit from IgG replacement, which may in turn help to avoid excess morbidity and mortality.
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