Transfusion surgeries and infusion therapy in patients with malignant non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma after splenectomy
Objective. To present the immediate results of the splenectomy and preferable variants of transfusion therapy performance in patients with malignant non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (MNHL).
Materials and methods. 109 splenectomies were performed in patients with MNHL at the Department of General and Hematological Surgery of the institute from 1987 to 2020. The surgery was conducted by upper middle laparotomy under general anesthesia with intubation and, in particular cases, under spinal anesthesia.
Results and discussion. The indications for splenectomy in patients with MNHL were as follows: massive splenomegaly, abdominal syndrome, associated hemocytopenia, inefficacy of cytostatic therapy, absence of diagnosis. All patients underwent vaccination against capsular bacteria for prevention of post-splenectomy infection in 10-14 days prior to the surgery. In case of anemia, which has been observed in 55 % of patients, the RBC concentrate was applied. All the patients, who received corticosteroid hormones prior to splenectomy, were administered prednisolone and hydrocortisone in the amount of 3 mg/kg of body mass at similar doses in an hour before the surgery for prevention of adrenal insufficiency during the surgery. The patients, who did not receive those medications, were also intramuscularly administered prednisolone at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg of body mass in an hour before the surgery for the same aim. The patients with PLT value <150.0×109/L were administered 1-2 doses of PLT concentrate immediately before the laparotomy. M-gradient was found in blood serum of 3 patients prior to the surgery. They underwent courses of therapeutic plasmapheresis due to the risk of intraoperative hemorrhage. 2 patients with hyperleukocytosis (WBC >80.0×109/L) underwent two courses of leukapheresis. The patients with concomitant regional portal hypertension and in case of manipulations close to the pancreatic tail were administered somatostatin drugs in the course of the splenectomy. The splenectomy proved to be effective in 100 (92 %) of patients with MNHL: the great tumor mass was removed, the abdominal syndrome and concomitant hemocytopenia were neutralized, the signs of hypersplenism ceased, the hemolysis ceased, the cytostatic therapy became less necessary or unnecessary, the final diagnosis was established. The most serious postsurgical complications were acute adrenal failure (n=3), postsurgical intra-abdominal hemorrhage (n=2), pancreonecrosis (n=6). The postsurgical lethality was 2.7 %.
Conclusions. The splenectomy proved to be effective in 92 % of patients with MNHL. The infusion therapy is individual for each patient and may include transfusion surgeries if indicated. The main objective of the infusion therapy in patients with MNHL is prevention and elimination of intra- and postsurgical complications.
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