Chemosynthesis: a history of innovation


BACKGROUND. Despite the fact that the process of chemosynthesis has been known for more than a hundred years, its significance and importance are still relevant today in the transformation of chemical elements in biogeochemical cycles. Today, the vital processes of nitrifying bacteria, which lead to the oxidation of ammonia to nitric acid, require scientific substantiation and additional research. The ability of bacteria to convert inorganic substances into organic ones suggests that chemosynthetics can accumulate valuable resources for human needs.

OBJECTIVE. To analyze the history of the discovery of chemosynthesis and identify the main ways of its implementation in innovative technologies.

MATERIALS AND METHODS. Generalization, analysis and synthesis of thematic scientific publications.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. The article is presents the history of the discovery of the process of chemosynthesis and its author Serhiy Winogradsky. Peculiarities and conditions of transformation of chemical elements in biogeochemical cycles are given. The main directions of scientific research are the analysis of the peculiarities of the process of chemosynthesis, the reasons for their occurrence, as well as the definition of the main possibilities of chemosynthesis in innovative technologies. The relevance of chemosynthesis in life processes and innovative technologies of today is confirmed.

CONCLUSIONS. Chemosynthetic communities in different environments are important biological systems in terms of their ecology, evolution and biogeography, as well as their potential as indicators of the availability of permanent hydrocarbon- based energy sources. In the process of chemosynthesis, bacteria produce organic matter where photosynthesis is impossible. Isolation of thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii and other types of chemosynthetics provides prospects for further research. Thus, the importance of chemosynthesis remains relevant for use in innovative technologies, conservation of ecosystems, human life in general. The role of Serhiy Winogradsky in discovering the phenomenon of chemosynthesis is underestimated and needs further research and popularization.

Keywords: chemosynthesis, microorganisms, biogeochemical cycle, hemophthora, Serhiy Winogradsky, oxidation, innovation


Smith C. Chemosynthesis in the deep-sea: life without the sun. Biogeosciences Discuss. 2012; 9: 17037-17052. doi: 10.5194/bgd-9-17037-2012.

Sogin E.M., Leisch N., Dubilier N. Chemosynthetic symbioses. Current Biology. 2020; 30 (19): R1137-R1142. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2020.07.050.

Ackert L. Sergei Vinogradskii and the cycle of life: from the thermodynamics of life to ecological microbiology. Dordrecht: Springer Science and media, 2013. 189 p. ISBN: 978-94-007-5197-2. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-5198-9.

Barney B.M. Aerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria for hydrogen and ammonium production: current state and perspectives. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2020 Feb; 104 (4): 1383-1399. doi: 10.1007/s00253-019-10210-9.

Noar J.D., Bruno-Bárcena J.M. Protons and pleomorphs: aerobic hydrogen production in azotobacters. World Journal Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2016; 32 (2): 29. doi: 10.1007/s11274-015-1980-5.

Chemosynthesis influences food web and community structure in high-Arctic benthos. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 2019; 629. doi: 10.3354/ meps13101.

Energy Flow and Ecosystems. Alan P. Covich. Encyclopedia of Biodiversity (Second Edition), 2013.

Vidkryttya khemosyntezu. Winogradsky [Internet]. Available at: https://

Roslytskyy Ye. Serhiy Winogradsky – peredovyy mikrobioloh svitu // Instytut mikrobiolohiyi i virusolohiyi im. D.K. Zabolotnoho NAN Ukrayiny. K.: Akademperiodyka, 2008. 68 p.

Kryvyy P. Visnyk G-Club. Almanakh. Vyp. 1. Rodyna mikrobioloha. Horodok: Klub imeni S.M. Winogradskogo, 2021. 154 p.

Matselyukh B.P. Serhiy Mykolayovych Vinohradsky. Mikrobiolohichnyy zhurnal. 2006; 5: 94-96.

Gumeniuk G., Kryvyy P. Serhiy Vinohradsky i mistechko Horodok. Svitohlyad. 2016; 5 (61): 42-45.

Vinohradsky. U harmoniyi neba i zemli. 2013 [Film. Prodyuser M. Humenyuk]. Available at:

Matselyukh B. Klub Vinohradskoho v Horodku. Svitohlyad. 2020; 4 (84): 67-68.

Pasteur Institute [Internet]. Available at:

Shenderovskyy V. Mikrobioloh svitu – Serhiy Vinohradsky. Svitohlyad. 2016; 11 (5): 36-41.

Winogradsky club [Internet]. Available at:

Zhang Yu., Showalter A.M. CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology: a valuable tool for understanding plant cell wall biosynthesis and function. Front. Plant Sci. 2020; 11. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2020.589517.

Blin K., Shaw S., Kloosterman M.A., Charlop-Powers Z., et al. AntiSMASH 6.0: improving cluster detection and comparison capabilities. Nucleic Acids Research. 2021; vol. 49, issue W1: W29-W35.

Stewart F.J., Newton I.L., Cavanaugh C.M. Chemosynthetic endosymbioses: adaptations to oxic-anoxic interfaces. Trends in Microbiology. 2005; vol. 13, issue 9: 439-448. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2005.07.007.

mmelie K.L., Åström M.L., Carroll A.S., Helge N., et al. Chemosynthesisinfluenced trophic relationships and community structure at Barents Sea cold seeps. Geophysical Research Abstracts. 2019; vol. 21: EGU2019-16335. EGU General Assembly.

Roeselers G., Newton I.L. On the evolutionary ecology of symbioses between chemosynthetic bacteria and bivalves. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2012; 94 (1): 1-10. doi: 10.1007/s00253-011-3819-9.

Levin L.A., Michener R.H. Isotopic evidence for chemosynthesis-based nutrition of macrobenthos: the lightness of being at Pacific methane seeps. Limnology and Oceanography. 2002; 47 (5): 1336-1345.

Morford S.L., Houlton B.Z., Dahlgren R.A. Increased forest ecosystem carbon and nitrogen storage from nitrogen rich bedrock. Nature, 2011; 7362: 78-81.

How to Cite
Paraska, O., Horban, A., Matselyukh, B., Shchur, S., & Shenderovskyj, V. (2022). Chemosynthesis: a history of innovation. Infusion & Chemotherapy, (2), 50-56.

Author Biographies

O.A. Paraska, Khmelnytskyi National University, Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine

Paraska Olga Anatoliivna
Professor of the department of chemistry and chemical engineering, Khmelnytskyi national university.
Dr. tech. sciences, associate professor.
11, Instytutska st., Khmelnytsky, 29016, Ukraine.

A.Ye. Horban, Petro Mohyla Black Sea National University, Mykolaiv, Ukraine

Horban Andrii Yevhenovych
Professor of the department of hygiene, social medicine, public health and medical informatics, Petro Mohyla Black Sea national university.
Academician of the National academy of sciences of higher education of Ukraine, MD.
68, Desantnykiv st., Mykolaiv, 54000, Ukraine.

B.P. Matselyukh, Zabolotny Institute of Microbiology and Virology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine

Matselyukh Bohdan Pavlovych
Head of the department of genetics of microorganisms, Zabolotny Institute of microbiology and virology, National academy of sciences of Ukraine.
Corresponding member of the National academy of sciences of Ukraine, dr. biol. science, professor.
154, Academician Zabolotny st., Kyiv, 03680, Ukraine.

S.A. Shchur, Department of Culture, Nationalities, Religions and Tourism of Horodok City Council, Horodok, Ukraine

Shchur Serhii Anatoliyovych
Deputy head of the department of culture, nationalities, religions and tourism of Horodok city council.
51, Hrushevskoho st., Horodok, 32000, Ukraine.

V.А. Shenderovskyj, Institute of Physics National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine

Shenderovskyj Vasyl Andriyovych
Professor of physics, Institute of physics of the National academy of sciences of Ukraine. Dr. phys.-math. science, professor.
46, Nauki ave., Kyiv, 02000, Ukraine.