Bronchial obstruction and resistance to hypoxia in elderly patients with COPD
Background. Age-related morphofunctional changes in the body lead to the development of arterial hypoxemia, tissue hypoxia and hypoxic changes. All this causes a decrease in the body’s resistance to hypoxia and contributes to the development of lung diseases, in particular, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the elderly. With the development of COPD in the elderly due to bronchial obstruction and disorders of pulmonary gas exchange, age-related hypoxic shifts, arterial hypoxemia, tissue hypoxia and resistance to hypoxia are further reduced. However, the relationship between bronchial obstruction and resistance to hypoxia in elderly patients with COPD has not been studied.
Objective. To identify the relationship between bronchial patency and resistance to hypoxia in elderly patients with COPD.
Materials and methods. The study included 30 patients with COPD in the elderly (60-74 years), I-II stage, without exacerbation, with a disease duration of 7 to 26 years, risk groups A and B. The type and severity of pulmonary ventilation were assessed indicators of spirometry and the curve “flow/volume” of forced exhalation on the device Spirobank (Mir, Italy). To determine the body’s resistance to hypoxia, a hypoxic test with 12 % oxygen content was performed for 12 min with monitoring of blood saturation using the automated software and hardware complex Hypotron (Ukraine).
Results. Researches have shown that under hypoxic exposure, blood saturation in elderly patients with COPD is reduced, on average, by 18.23±0.26 %. This decrease in blood saturation can be regarded as severe arterial hypoxemia. At the same time, in elderly patients with COPD with an increase in bronchial patency disorders, the saturation shifts in hypoxia, on average, also increase. There was a significant correlation (r=0.50; p=0.006) of blood saturation shifts in hypoxia with bronchial obstruction.
Conclusions. In elderly patients with COPD, resistance to hypoxia is determined by bronchial obstruction.
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