Dorsopathy: back pain management

  • M.A. Treshchynska Shupyk National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Kyiv, Ukraine


Background. Dorsopathy is a group of diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue associated with degenerative diseases of the spine. Risk groups for the development of dorsopathies include people with a sedentary lifestyle, people working in difficult conditions, athletes, military personnel, people with obesity. Clinical classification of dorsopathies involves their division according to the affected level (cervical, thoracic, lumbosacral).

Objective. To describe the management of patients with back pain.

Materials and methods. Analysis of literature data on this topic.

Results and discussion. Cervicocranialgias, related to dorsopathies, include vertebral artery syndrome (VAS) and extravasal artery compression (EAC). VAS is a complex of cerebral, vascular and autonomic disorders that occur due to the damage of the sympathetic plexus of vertebral artery, deformation of the wall or changes in its lumen. In turn, EAC involves the compression of blood vessels by bone abnormalities, muscles, osteophytes of the cervical vertebrae, scars, tumors, and so on. Lower back pain (LBP) is one of the most common dorsopathies. Its prevalence has doubled in the last decade. The mechanism of aseptic inflammation in dorsopathies includes such links as the release of proinflammatory mediators, activation of peripheral nociceptors, production of cyclooxygenase-2 and the formation of prostaglandins. Pain in dorsopathies is classified into nociceptive (caused by the excitation of nociceptors in damaged tissues), neuropathic (caused by damage to the central or peripheral nervous system) and psychogenic (caused by primary mental disorders). By duration, LBP is classified into acute (<6 weeks), subacute (6-12 weeks) and chronic (>3 months). According to the etiology, the following subspecies are distinguished: radicular (disc herniation, spondylosis, vertebral canal stenosis), specific (cancer, infection, fracture, equine tail syndrome) and nonspecific (myogenic disorders, facet syndrome). In the presence of so-called symptoms of red flags, it is recommended to conduct imaging examinations according to the indications. Such symptoms include pain development at the age of <20 years or >55 years, recent back injury, progressive character, deterioration or lack of dynamics after keeping horizontal position, prolonged use of glucocorticoids, history of malignant tumors, osteoporosis, intravenous drugs injection, immunodeficiency, weight loss, fever, focal neurological symptoms, pain on palpation of the spine, spinal deformity. The symptoms of yellow flags predict pain chronization. The latter include certain work-related circumstances, beliefs, behaviors, and affective symptoms. The main causes of non-specific back pain include muscular-tonic pain syndrome (MTPS), myofascial pain syndrome (MFPS), arthropathies. Microcirculatory disorders, caused primarily by the reflex muscle spasm, play a significant role in the development of pain in these conditions. MTPS develops on the background of degenerative-dystrophic changes in the spine, ligaments and muscles as a result of exposure to provoking factors (significant physical exertion, injuries, sudden movements, prolonged stay in a static position, general or local hypothermia). Chronization of MTPS leads to the development of MTFS. Ischemic muscle spasm leads to the spasm of arteries and dilation of venules with impaired microcirculation and accumulation of inflammatory mediators. In turn, radicular ischemia develops with radicular pain. Venous plexus, which is compressed at the stage of stenosis without signs of direct compression of the root, is the most vulnerable structure of the intervertebral space. Treatment of LBP includes bed rest, sleep on a hard surface, the use of non-specific anti-inflammatory drugs, local administration of local anesthetics, muscle relaxants, B vitamins, therapeutic exercises and surgical treatment. Restoration of microcirculation makes it possible to influence the pathogenesis of radiculoischemia. Drugs that improve microcirculation and hemodynamics are included in the domestic clinical protocol for the treatment of dorsalgia. Reosorbilact (“Yuria-Pharm”) improves substance exchange between blood and tissues and helps to remove metabolic products. These effects are based on the opening of precapillary sphincters on the background of this solution use. For dorsalgia, it is also advisable to prescribe Latren (“Yuria-Pharm”) – a combination of pentoxifidine and Ringer’s lactate. Latren inhibits the aggregation of blood cells, increases the elasticity of erythrocytes, promotes vasodilation, normalizes the electrolyte composition of blood plasma. To eliminate endothelial dysfunction, Tivortin (“Yuria-Pharm”) is prescribed, which promotes vasodilation. The use of the listed above infusion drugs influences the pathogenesis of the process, eliminating dorsalgia.

Conclusions. 1. LBP is one of the most common dorsopathies. 2. Pain in dorsopathies is classified into nociceptive, neuropathic and psychogenic. 3. Microcirculatory disorders play a significant role in the development of nonspecific LBP. 4. Combined use of Reosorbilact, Latren and Tivortin influences the pathogenesis of the process, eliminating dorsalgia.

Keywords: dorsalgia, lower back pain, microcirculation.
How to Cite
Treshchynska , M. (2020). Dorsopathy: back pain management. Infusion & Chemotherapy, (3.2), 286-288.
Oral presentation materials of IV International Congress of infusion therapy