Options of severe preeclampsia treatment

  • R.O. Tkachenko Shupyk National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Kyiv, Ukraine


Background. Preeclampsia (PE) occurs in 2-8 % of all pregnancies. Every day 210 women die from PE, and neonatal losses are even greater (1380 children per day). Fatal complications of severe PE include cerebral hemorrhage, cerebral edema, pulmonary edema, placental abruption, adrenal hemorrhage, dissecting aortic aneurysm, HELLP syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome. Excessive intravenous fluid infusion is one of the causes of pulmonary edema in PE.

Objective. To describe the options of severe PE treatment.

Materials and methods. Analysis of literature data on this issue.

Results and discussion. The pathogenesis of PE is based on total damage to the vascular endothelium, which leads to an increase in its permeability, including for albumin molecules. Plasma protein loss is accompanied by a drop in oncotic blood pressure and fluid leakage into the interstitial space. Thus, in patients with PE there is an associated disturbance of fluid and electrolyte balance: along with intravascular dehydration there is extravascular hyperhydration. Infusion therapy (IT) allows to overcome this imbalance and to increase the colloid-osmotic pressure. According to modern views, a restricted IT regimen improves the effects of PE treatment. There are two ways to correct this disorder: an increase in oncotic blood pressure due to infusion of albumin (indicated in case of blood albumin levels <25 g/L) and the administration of osmotically active drugs, such as Reosorbilact (“Yuria-Pharm”). The latter option prevents the loss of fluid from the vascular bed and promotes its return to the vessels from the intercellular space. The total fluid volume should be limited to physiological needs, taking into account pathological losses (not more than 1 ml/kg/h). The maximum IT volume should not exceed 800 ml per day. The drugs of choice for IT before delivery are balanced isotonic saline solutions and solutions containing 6 % sorbitol. Fresh-frozen plasma is not recommended for the correction of colloid-oncotic pressure. Influence on the redistribution of fluid in the interstitial space without the introduction of significant volumes of infusion solutions is the main principle of low-volume IT. Recommendations for the administration of Reosorbilact comply with this principle. The low osmolarity of Reosorbilact and its ability to improve the osmotic properties of blood justify the use of this drug in women with PE.

Conclusions. 1. PE occurs in 2-8 % of all pregnancies. 2. Excessive intravenous fluid infusion is one of the causes of pulmonary edema in PE. 3. Restricted IT mode improves the consequences of PE treatment. 4. Osmotically active drugs (Reosorbilact) are prescribed for this purpose.

Keywords: preeclampsia, endothelial dysfunction, low-volume infusion therapy, Reosorbilact.
How to Cite
Tkachenko , R. (2020). Options of severe preeclampsia treatment. Infusion & Chemotherapy, (3.2), 278-279. https://doi.org/10.32902/2663-0338-2020-3.2-278-279
Oral presentation materials of IV International Congress of infusion therapy