Background. Sepsis is a life-threatening acute organ dysfunction that occurs as a result of dysregulation of the macroorganism’s response to infection. Septic shock is a variant of sepsis characterized by the circulatory failure, manifested by hypotension and increased lactate levels >2 mmol/L despite adequate infusion, which requires the administration of vasopressors to maintain average blood pressure >65 mm Hg.
Objective. To describe the management of patients with abdominal sepsis.
Materials and methods. Analysis of literature data on this topic.
Results and discussion. Complicated intra-abdominal infection (IAI) is the growth of pathogenic microorganisms in a usually sterile abdominal cavity, usually due to the perforation of the hollow organs. Uncomplicated IAI involves transmural inflammation of the digestive tract, which does not spread beyond the hollow organ. If uncomplicated IAI are not treated, there is a possibility that they will progress to complicated ones. Measures to control the source of infection include the drainage of abscesses or places of accumulation of infected fluid, removal of necrotic infected tissues and restoration of the anatomy and functions of the affected area. Several multivariate studies have found that failure to adequately control the source of infection is a risk factor for adverse outcomes and death in patients with IAI. Surviving sepsis and other recommendations also support the need for early control of the source of infection. In a study by B. Tellor et al. (2012) mortality was 9.5 % among individuals with adequate control of the infection source and 33.3 % among patients who failed to achieve such control. In some situations, it is advisable to manage patients conservatively. Thus, in appendicular infiltration, most studies have demonstrated the benefits of conservative management (Andersson R.E., Petzold M.G., 2007). Management of IAI without final control of the primary source is possible in cases where the organism has already overcome the infection, and surgery can only increase the number of complications. In general, patients with localized infections may need less invasive management. Thus, percutaneous drainage can be used for localized accumulations of fluid in the abdominal cavity. 80-92 % of drainage procedures are successful on the first attempt. <5 % of patients require surgical treatment. Such drainage procedures are used in infected pancreatic necrosis, and the final debridement of the infection source may be delayed. In critically ill patients, damage control laparotomy and limited intervention (resection without reanastomosis or stoma formation, temporary drainage and tamponade of the abdominal cavity if necessary, temporary closure of the abdominal cavity) are performed to control the infection. Indications for damage control laparotomy include inability to achieve adequate control of the source of IAI during primary laparotomy, hemodynamic instability, the need to re-evaluate the condition of the problematic anastomosis, and diffuse peritonitis. A prospective study of staged laparotomies revealed a shorter length of stay in the intensive care unit, a lower incidence of complications and lower treatment costs using this method compared to the standard one. Antibacterial support of surgical interventions is an important aspect of treatment. In conditions of increasing antibiotic resistance, antibiotics should be prescribed strictly in accordance with the recommendations and for as short effective period as possible.
Conclusions. 1. Despite the fact that approaches are changing, control of the IAI source remains the main method of treatment of most patients with IAI. 2. The choice of empirical antibacterial therapy should be based on the risk assessment and potential of resistant bacteria. 3. The duration of antimicrobial therapy can be significantly reduced (4 days).
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