Patients of risk groups in the perioperative period: the review of modern guidelines

  • Yu.Yu. Kobeliatskyi Dnipropetrovsk Medical Academy, Dnipro, Ukraine


Background. According to the Decree of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine № 275 issued on 11.09.2018, there is a list of measures to ensure surgical safety and patient’s safety. These measures can be divided into those that should be performed 1) before anesthesia; 2) before skin dissection; 3) before the patient leaves the operating room. Perioperative medicine (POM) is a patient-centered and interdisciplinary perioperative care for surgical patients.

Objective. To describe the current recommendations for POM.

Materials and methods. Review of available guidance documents.

Results and discussion. The pathophysiology of postoperative complications (infectious processes, intestinal paralysis, respiratory failure, kidney damage, etc.) includes the following factors: triggers (anxiety, pain, surgical trauma), patient factors (age, comorbid conditions), the consequences of general operative stress (autonomous system imbalance, inflammation, coagulopathy, metabolic imbalance). Clinical evaluation or biomarkers should be used to identify high-risk patients in the perioperative period. Measures to improve postoperative rehabilitation should be carried out in the pre-, intra- and postoperative period. Thus, in the preoperative period it is necessary to examine the patient, to provide the carbohydrate load 2 hours before the intervention, to conduct antibiotic prophylaxis, to correct or stabilize the comorbid diseases (especially cardiovascular and renal diseases, diabetes, anemia). In the intraoperative period it is necessary to maintain normovolemia and normothermia, to use protective mechanical lung ventilation, to limit the use of opioids, to perform extubation immediately after the intervention. In the postoperative period early activation, early enteral nutrition and early removal of drainages and catheters should be used. The key components of POM include the identification of low-risk patients in order to save resources, the identification of high-risk patients with the possible use of alternative management strategies, and the frequent risk reassessment. The main components of the success of anesthesia include preoperative assessment of the patient’s somatic status and risk, use of controlled hypnotics and effective and predictable muscle relaxant, use of analgesics that break down quickly and have no ability to accumulate, control of the hemodynamics stability, blood gases and acid-base balance. To prevent the perioperative myocardial ischemia, it is advisable to use esmolol – a cardioselective β-blocker of ultrashort action. Preoperative anxiety, intubation and extubation, surgical manipulations lead to the excessive adrenergic response, which justifies the use of β-blockers. The pharmacological effects of esmolol (Biblok, “Yuria-Pharm”) include the reduction of myocardial oxygen consumption, increase of the diastole duration, limitation of the free radicals’ production, control of the activity of metalloproteinases, and the reduction of inflammation around atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, esmolol (Biblok) is able to reduce intra- and postoperative use of opioids, and therefore its use as a component of multimodal total intravenous anesthesia has been proposed. Preoperative administration of esmolol may also be an effective and safe method of myocardial protection in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. β-blockers are well tolerated in patients with acute hypovolaemia during anesthesia, however, episodes of hypercapnia should be avoided during their use.

Conclusions. 1. For the optimal POM, the individual risk of perioperative complications should be determined. 2. POM includes a number of pre-, intra- and postoperative measures. 3. The use of ultrashort-acting β-blocker esmolol prevents intraoperative myocardial ischemia, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, reduces the need for opioids.

Keywords: perioperative medicine, esmolol, intraoperative myocardial ischemia.
How to Cite
Kobeliatskyi , Y. (2020). Patients of risk groups in the perioperative period: the review of modern guidelines. Infusion & Chemotherapy, (3.2), 129-131.
Oral presentation materials of IV International Congress of infusion therapy