Options of the placental dysfunction correction in women with preeclampsia
Background. Placental dysfunction (PD) is one of the most common complications of pregnancy, which has not only medical but also social significance. The links of the PD pathogenesis include endothelial dysfunction, hemodynamic disorders of the placental vessels, disorders of arterial and venous blood flow in the placenta.
Objective. To study diagnostic methods and possibilities of PD correction in women with preeclampsia (PE).
Materials and methods. The study involved 68 women with PE in the II and III trimesters of pregnancy, treated at the multidisciplinary clinic of the Tashkent Medical Academy during 2017-2019. Patients underwent standard clinical, laboratory and instrumental examination with color Doppler mapping of vessels of the uterine-placental-fetal system and ultrasound evaluation of the fetoplacental system.
Results and discussion. Premature aging of the placenta was found in 77.3 % of cases, turbid amniotic fluid – in 59.09 %, oligohydramnion – in 27.3 %. Disorders of uteroplacental blood flow were detected in 28.3 % of cases, placentofetal blood flow – in 26.7 %. Impaired blood flow at both levels without critical values occurred in 10 % of pregnant women. In case of insufficiency of a blood circulation of 2nd grade the syndrome of fetal growth restriction was observed in 16,7 % of cases. Compensated forms of PD were subject to the comprehensive treatment with the addition of infusions of L-arginine (Tivortin, “Yuria-Pharm”) in the inpatient phase and oral administration of Tivortin aspartate in the outpatient phase. The length of the fetal thigh in the group of L-arginine at the beginning of treatment was 47.33 mm, which was by 9.04 % less than this parameter in physiological pregnancy. After treatment with Tivortin, in the full-term period, no significant difference was found. In pregnant women who received L-arginine at 25-29 weeks of pregnancy, after 2 weeks, the resistance indices (RI) of the umbilical artery and uterine artery decreased from 0.68±0.09 to 0.58±0.05 and from 0,58±0.16 to 0.43±0.08, respectively. The RI of the middle cerebral artery increased from 1.05±0.23 to 1.27±0.19. Parameters of RI dynamics indicate that the early treatment with Tivortin is more effective than late.
Conclusions. 1. Regardless of the presence of fetal growth restriction syndrome in women with disorders of uterine-placental-fetal circulation, it is advisable to include L-arginine in the treatment to prevent this condition. 2. Ultrasound examination is a reliable method for evaluating the effectiveness of PD treatment.
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