Procedural sedation – a patient’s whim or a necessity?
Background. Procedural sedation (PS) is a condition that allows patients to avoid discomfort when undergoing certain painful manipulations on the background of stable hemodynamics and respiration and maintaining the ability to respond adequately to verbal commands or tactile stimulation. PS is most often used in dentistry, maxillofacial surgery, endoscopy, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology.
Objective. Describe the main features of the PS.
Materials and methods. Analysis of literature data on this topic.
Results and discussion. Risk groups during PS include patients with cardiovascular decompensation, morbid obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, grade III-IV chronic renal failure, liver decompensation, as well as age over 70. The conditions for safe PS are as follows: all medical staff are trained to provide cardiorespiratory resuscitation; there is a constant quick access to resuscitation equipment; a routine pre-procedure assessment of the patient’s condition (especially the upper respiratory tract) was carried out; pre-procedure fasting was prescribed; careful monitoring of the patient’s condition is provided. The main scales for sedation assessment include Ramsay Sedation Scale, Sedation Agitation Scale, Motor Activity Assessment Scale, Vancouver Interactive and Calmness Scale, Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale, Adaptation to Intensive Care Environment, Minnesota Sedation Assessment Tool. Midazolam, propofol, dexmedetomidine can be used for PS. Minimal sedation (anxiolysis) is a medical condition in which the patient responds normally to voice commands. Cognitive function and coordination in this condition may be impaired, however, cardiorespiratory function remains unchanged. Such sedation is prescribed in traumatology, maxillofacial surgery, urology, gynecology, plastic surgery. Moderate sedation is a medical suppression of consciousness in which the patient responds to voice commands accompanied by light tactile stimulation. Adequate respiration and functioning of the cardiovascular system is maintained. Diazepam/sibazone, midazolam, dexmedetomidine are prescribed for this purpose. The latter is recommended for fiber-optic intubation in a state of complete consciousness. The dangers of PS include passive aspiration and ventilation disorders, which leads to hypoxia and hypercapnia. Caution should be taken with propofol due to the possible development of respiratory depression and hemodynamics, pain in the vein during administration. Dexmedetomidine does not cause respiratory depression, however, this does not eliminate the need for monitoring.
Conclusions. 1. Adequate sedation during surgery is a logical component of the intervention if the regional methods of anesthesia are applicated. 2. Sedation outside the operating room will account for more and more of the use of anesthetics. 3. There is a need for clear regulation of PS. 4. When choosing a drug one should take into account the purpose of its administration, curability of complications, comfort and safety of the patient.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.