Microcirculation as a goal of correction in macroangiopathy (atherogenesis)
Background. The microcirculatory system (MCS) is a network of blood vessels that includes arterioles, capillaries, venules, and terminal lymphatic vessels. Microcirculation is characterized by the constant variability. Factors of atherogenesis development due to MCS dysfunction include shear stress, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, systemic and local inflammation, hypoxia and endothelial dysfunction mediated by oxidative stress. Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is used to study microcirculation in the clinical settings. The advantages of LDF include simplicity, accessibility and non-invasiveness.
Objective. To describe the features of microcirculation disorders and their elimination.
Materials and methods. Analysis of literature data on this topic; own study. The study involved 98 patients (59 females; 39 males) with a mean age of 52.0 years. The first group consisted of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and chronic heart failure of I-IIA grades, the second – of relatively healthy individuals. All patients underwent LDF, ultrasound examination of the carotid arteries, and determination of anthropometric parameters.
Results and discussion. MCS dysfunction is not only a risk factor for atherogenesis, but also a trigger for its acute complications (myocardial infarction, stroke, sudden death). Nitric oxide (NO) deficiency plays an important role in this. A potential target of therapeutic influence in the treatment of coronary heart disease is not only macrovascular system, but also vasa vasorum. The condition of the latter determines the course of atherosclerosis. According to the results of our own study, patients with CHD demonstrated a muscle mass decrease, an increase in waist and hip circumference, and in body mass index. In addition, the groups differed in thickness of the intima-media complex of both common carotid arteries (right common carotid artery: CHD group – 0.79±0.18 mm; group of relatively healthy individuals – 0.69±0.13 mm, p<0,05; left common carotid artery: CHD group – 0.81±0.19 mm, group of relatively healthy individuals – 0.70±0.14 mm, p<0,05). When assessing the indicators of wavelet analysis of LDF, a significant decrease in the rate of microcirculation and capillary blood flow reserve is revealed in the CHD group, as well as an increase in peripheral vascular resistance. According to previous own studies, sorbitol (Reosorbilact, “Yuria-Pharm”) and pentoxifylline (Latren, “Yuria-Pharm”) can be used to correct microcirculation disorders. The use of these drugs leads to vasodilation of precapillary sphincters and improvement of regional microperfusion.
Conclusions. 1. Disorders of MCS are the pathogenetic factors of the atherogenesis. 2. Laser Doppler flowmetry is used to study microcirculation in the clinical settings. 3. In patients with CHD there is an increase in neuro- and myotonus of the MCS, which is associated with the impaired release of nitric oxide. 4. Changes in microcirculation contribute to the development of atherosclerosis, which should be taken into account when choosing treatment for such patients. 5. Sorbitol (Reosorbilact) and pentoxifylline (Latren) can be used to correct microcirculation disorders.
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