The main complications of infusion therapy and methods to overcome them
Background. Infusion therapy (IT) is an integral part of the modern treatment process and the most common method of inpatient treatment. Indications for the IT use include dehydration, changes in blood properties, intoxication, the impossibility or inexpediency of the drug administration in other ways, the impossibility of oral nutrition, and impaired immunity.
Objective. To describe the main complications of IT and their treatment.
Materials and methods. Analysis of literature data on this issue.
Results and discussion. Before conducting IT, you should take into account all the indications and contraindications and carefully read the instructions for use of drugs. It is advisable to use several drugs to reduce the number and severity of side effects. The rate of administration is important: in most cases, the safe rate is 20-30 drops per minute. Accidental needle injuries (ANI) and blood contact are potential IT risks for healthcare professionals. The National Union of Nurses of Private Practice has launched a survey of health workers to reduce the prevalence of these injuries. There are three components to injection safety: safe solution preparation, safe injection, and safe disposal. IT via the needle has a number of disadvantages: complications due to frequent punctures, limited ability to conduct long-term IT, increased risk of ANI. The installation of a permanent venous catheter reduces the likelihood of these defects. After catheter placement, before and after infusion, it should be flushed with 0.9 % NaCl, heparin or Soda-Bufer solution (“Yuria-Pharm”). However, as the number of catheterizations increases, the number of catheter-associated infections increases too, ranking third among nosocomial infections and first among the causes of bacteremia. In general, the frequency of complications of venous catheterization is 15 %. Mechanical complications occur in 5-19 % of patients, infectious – in 5-26 %, thrombotic – in 2-26 %. Complications of IT are classified into the complications due to violation of the rules of administration (hematoma, tissue damage, thrombophlebitis (septic, mechanical and chemical), embolism) or blood composition disorders (acidosis, blood thinning), as well as overdose, and specific complications (anaphylactic shock, pulmonary edema, hyperthermia). Anaphylaxis most often accompanies the introduction of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, muscle relaxants, radiocontrast, hypnotics, etc. The first line of treatment of anaphylactic shock involves drug discontinuation, intravenous adrenaline, 100 % oxygen, rapid intravenous infusion of crystalloids, in case of bronchospasm – 2-3 inhalations of salbutamol. Additionally, antihistamines and glucocorticoids may be prescribed.
Conclusions. 1. IT is an integral part of the modern treatment process and the most common method of treatment in the hospital. 2. In IT, it is advisable to use several drugs, which reduces the number and severity of side effects. 3. Potential IT risks for healthcare professionals include ANI and blood contact. 4. Injection safety requires three components: safe solution preparation, safe injection, and safe disposal. 5. Complications of IT are divided into complications due to violations of the rules of installation or violation of blood composition, as well as overdose, and specific complications. 6. Anaphylaxis often accompanies the introduction of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, muscle relaxants, radiocontrast, hypnotics, etc.
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